Title : Copper and mercury induced oxidative stresses and antioxidant responses of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid
Duckweed is recognized as a phytoremediation aquatic plant due to the production of large biomass and a high level of tolerance in stressed conditions. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate antioxidant response and mechanism of copper and mercury tolerance of S. polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. To understand the changes in chlorophyll content, MDA, proline, and activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPOD) during the accumulation of Cu+2 and Hg+2, S. polyrhiza were exposed to various concentrations of Cu+2 (0.0–40 μM) and Hg+2 (0.0–0.4 μM). antioxidant activity initially indicated enhancing trend with application of 10 μM Cu+2; 0.2 μM Hg+2 (SOD), of 20 μM Cu+2; 0.2 μM Hg+2 (CAT) and of 10 μM Cu+2;0.2 μM Hg+2 (GPOD) and then decreased consistently up to 40 μM Cu+2 and 0.4 μM Hg+2. In the experiment chlorophyll and frond multiplication initially showed increasing tendency and decreased gradually with the application of increased metal concentration. Application of heavy metal has constantly enhanced proline and MDA content while the maximum increase was observed with the application of 40 μM Cu; 0.4 μM Hg for proline and MDA respectively. The upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline reveals that S. polyrhiza has strong biochemical strategies to deal with the heavy metal toxicity induced by the accumulation of Cu+2 and Hg+2.