Title : Estimation of Groundwater Vulnerability and Impact of Human activities on karst systems of saida mountains (ALGERIA)
Groundwater from karst aquifers of Saïda’s mountains represent an important resources for water supply; both for the local population and agriculture, also for the economic, industrial and touristic development. Understanding the behavior of karst aquifers (hydrodynamic and hydrochemistry), as well as the charging, discharging and circulation processes, that have such a crucial importance for the development of effective water management. Karst systems studies are aiming to characterize the origin of the underground streams, and to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the resources, finally to estimate the vulnerability of these aquifers to anthropogenic contamination. Karst is a middle that has little protective soil surface, so many fractures and openings in heterogeneous dimensions and orientations, besides the charging options while the diffusion by infiltration that has a direct runoff, altogether is giving this environment a large vulnerability to pollution .To speak about karst aquifers pollutants can both spread rapidly to an outlet source (fast flow in the karst system) and remain stored for a longtime in the micro-cracks, also in cavities and areas of slow flow of the enclosing carbonate formation. All these features give the karst systems an increased vulnerability towards all kinds of contaminants (chemical, biological or physical), especially in the areas with high anthropogenic activity. The risk assessment is a step in the groundwater resource protection processes, particularly the establishment of protection perimeters. On the research plan, the work will be the application of different methods, which are based on different concepts applied in the karst systems field that is: DRASTIC, COP method, K factor, EPIK method, VURAAS, ULK, RISK, PAPRIKA. A synthesis and further comparison of these methods will allows to choose the suitable one in the context of the area study. The obtained results will be a concert tool in the managers of water resources hands, in order to undertake a specific measure to protect the areas that are most exposed to contamination for the quality preservation of this vital resource.