Title : Studying the chemical composition and anticancer mechanisms of Allium porrum in execution of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice
The aim of the study is introducing the methanolic extract of Allium porrum (MEAP) aerial parts as a candidate for the treatment of cancer in vivo and exploring its anti-tumor mechanisms in attacking tumor cells at the molecular level.One hundred and twenty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups. One group represent the normal control. The four remaining groups were divided as follows: Two groups were injected with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells intraperitonially the other two were injected intramuscularly (to form solid tumor) representing the positive nontreated groups. One group from each model administrated orally the extract at a dose of 300mg/kg b. wt. three days weekly for twenty one days after 24 hrs from the intraperitonial or intramuscular injection of EAC cells. The influence of the extract on the apoptic proteins was tested in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and in solid tumor of the treated groups compared to the nontreated ones. The gene expression of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2 proteins and DNA fragmentation test were performed in the EAC cells. Haematological profile was conducted in mice blood in addition to the immunohistochemical determination of P53 protein in solid tumors. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are separated by column chromatography have been carried out. The structure of these compounds was purified by sephadex LH-20 and established with the aid of spectroscopic metheods (UV, EI/MS, ESI/MS,1H-NMR and13C-NMR spectroscopy).The molecular results revealed a significant difference in the gene expression levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2 proteins and DNA fragmentation test in the treated groups compared to the nontreated ones. A significant difference was observed in blood profile parameters in blood of the treated and nontreated groups. The immunohistochemical results revealed the remarkable change of P53 amount in solid cancer treated groups. Isolation and characterization of eleven phenolic and flavonoid compounds (quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnpyranoside (1), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (2), quercetin-4’-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin (6), isorhamnetin (7), kaempferol (8), p-coumaric acid (9), ferulic acid (10) and gallic acid (11)) from MEAP. So, it was concluded that MEAP exhibits tumor suppressing mechanisms through the coordination between the apoptic proteins and DNA fragmentation in the EAC or solid cancer cells. MEAP is suggested to be a potent anticancer agent.