Title : Role of clove in human medical history
The clove is usually known as "lavang."Due to the increase in nutrition and medicinal properties, Plants' importance in human life has increased every day. Clove is the topical evergreen Myrtaceae family tree native to the islands of Maluka in east Indonesia. It is commonly used for tooth care. Clove is used extensively in dental care for relieving toothache, sore gums and oral ulcers. Gargling with clove oil can also aid in sore throat conditions and bad breathe. This is commonly used as an expectorant for the treatment of dental discomfort, the digestive problem, oral ulceration, mosquito repellent. Clove is a pharmacologically active medicinal plant that includes Anti-oxidant, anti-pyretic, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-platelet, anti-stress, anti-disease, and anti-carcinogenic in cervical cancer. Clove is amongst the most essential sources of Phenolic compounds, including eugenol (80% -90%), eugenyl acetate (15% -17%), and beta-caryophyllene (5% -12%), alpha-humulene (0.55%), alpha-terpenyl acetate (0.1%), and methyl eugenol (0.2%). The clove oil extracted from the dried floral buds of the clove provide as a topical treating pain and as a healing factor. The flowers, stalks and clove tree leaves are obtained from the distillation of clove oil. Eugenol is the clove’s principal bioactive ingredient. For oral diseases, it is used as an antiseptic.Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, Middle East countries and used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages. A mine component of clove plant parts is eugenol, that it has not been classified for its potential toxicity. Other important essential oil of clove is acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin, crategolic acid, tannins such as bicornin, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate, the flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin, triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, and campesterol and several sesquiterpenes. Thus, foods should be preserved against the microbial spoilage throughout the storage periods. In addition to clove extracts could affects as anti-oxidative, fungicidal, and antibacterial effects on foods. It has been reported that clove essential oil is one of the natural fungicides and antibacterial phytomaterial. The active essential oil in clove, eugenol, has been shown to act as an effective platelet inhibitor, preventing blood clots.The major constituents in bud and leaf oils were reported to be eugenol and caryophyllene . Main constituent’s flower buds of clove essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. Clove bud oil contained primarily eugenol, eugenyl acetate and caryophyllene. The high concentration of eugenol in leaf and buds oil makes it potentially useful in the medicines because they exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activity, insecticidal and antioxidant properties, and are used traditionally as flavouring agent and antimicrobial material in food. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) buds and flowers are utilized for its essential oil. Eugenol is the main component of clove oil, which has strong antioxidant activity. Eugenol is the chief bioactive constituent of clove, which is present in concentrations ranging from 9 381.70 to 14 650.00 mg/100 g of fresh plant weight. With regard to the phenolic acids, gallic acid is found in higher concentration (783.50 mg/100 g fresh weight).Cloves contain appreciable amounts of volatile oil (used for flavouring foods and pharmaceuticals), which is mainly confined in aerial parts of plant. Other phenolic acids found in clove are caffeic, ferulic, elagic and salicylic acids. Flavonoids including kaempferol, quercetin and its derivates (glycosilated) are also found in trace amounts. Appreciable amounts of essential oil are present in aerial parts of clove. Good quality clove bud contains volatile oil (15 to 20%), which mainly comprises of eugenol (70 to 85%), eugenyl acetate (10 to 15%), and beta-caryophyllene (5 to 12%). Approximately, 15-20% volatile oil can be produced from dried buds. Clove improves memory by relieving mental fog, drowsiness, and depression. Clove oil is mosquito repellent. Clover oil exhibited significant inhibition against tested strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.312-1.25% (v/v) for clove oil, and 0.312- 5% (v/v) for rosemary oil.