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2023 Speakers

Muhammad Arshad Ullah

Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Speaker at Plant Biology Conferences
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Pakistan
Title : Role of clove in human medical history


The clove is usually known as "lavang."Due to the increase in nutrition and medicinal properties, Plants' importance in human life has increased every day. Clove is the topical evergreen Myrtaceae family tree native to the islands of Maluka in east Indonesia. It is commonly used for tooth care. Clove is used extensively in dental care for relieving toothache, sore gums and oral ulcers. Gargling with clove oil can also aid in sore throat conditions and bad breathe. This is commonly used as an expectorant for the treatment of dental discomfort, the digestive problem, oral ulceration, mosquito repellent. Clove is a pharmacologically active medicinal plant that includes Anti-oxidant, anti-pyretic, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-platelet, anti-stress, anti-disease, and anti-carcinogenic in cervical cancer. Clove is amongst the most essential sources of Phenolic compounds, including eugenol (80% -90%), eugenyl acetate (15% -17%), and beta-caryophyllene (5% -12%), alpha-humulene (0.55%), alpha-terpenyl acetate (0.1%), and methyl eugenol (0.2%). The clove oil extracted from the dried floral buds of the clove provide as a topical treating pain and as a healing factor. The flowers, stalks and clove tree leaves are obtained from the distillation of clove oil. Eugenol is the clove’s principal bioactive ingredient. For oral diseases, it is used as an antiseptic.Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, Middle East countries and used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages. A mine component of clove plant parts is eugenol, that it has not been classified for its potential toxicity. Other important essential oil of clove is acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin, crategolic acid, tannins such as bicornin, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate, the flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin, triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, and campesterol and several sesquiterpenes. Thus, foods should be preserved against the microbial spoilage throughout the storage periods. In addition to clove extracts could affects as anti-oxidative, fungicidal, and antibacterial effects on foods. It has been reported that clove essential oil is one of the natural fungicides and antibacterial phytomaterial. The active essential oil in clove, eugenol, has been shown to act as an effective platelet inhibitor, preventing blood clots.The  major constituents  in  bud  and  leaf  oils  were  reported  to  be eugenol  and caryophyllene . Main  constituent’s  flower  buds  of clove  essential  oil  are  phenylpropanoids  such  as carvacrol,  thymol,  eugenol  and  cinnamaldehyde. Clove bud oil contained primarily eugenol,  eugenyl  acetate  and  caryophyllene. The  high  concentration  of  eugenol  in  leaf  and  buds  oil makes  it  potentially  useful  in  the  medicines  because  they exhibit  antibacterial,  antifungal,    anti-inflammatory activity,  insecticidal  and  antioxidant  properties,  and  are used  traditionally  as  flavouring  agent  and  antimicrobial material  in  food. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) buds and flowers are utilized for its essential oil. Eugenol is the main component of clove oil, which has strong antioxidant activity. Eugenol is the chief bioactive constituent of clove, which is present in concentrations ranging from 9 381.70 to 14 650.00 mg/100 g of fresh plant weight. With regard to the phenolic acids, gallic acid is found in higher concentration (783.50 mg/100 g fresh weight).Cloves contain appreciable amounts of volatile oil (used for flavouring foods and pharmaceuticals), which is mainly confined in aerial parts of plant. Other phenolic acids found in clove are caffeic, ferulic, elagic and salicylic acids. Flavonoids including kaempferol, quercetin and its derivates (glycosilated) are also found in trace amounts.  Appreciable amounts of essential oil are present in aerial parts of clove. Good quality clove bud contains volatile oil (15 to 20%), which mainly comprises of eugenol (70 to 85%), eugenyl acetate (10 to 15%), and beta-caryophyllene (5 to 12%). Approximately, 15-20% volatile oil can be produced from dried buds. Clove improves memory by relieving mental fog, drowsiness, and depression. Clove oil is mosquito repellent. Clover oil exhibited significant inhibition against tested strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.312-1.25% (v/v) for clove oil, and 0.312- 5% (v/v) for rosemary oil.


Dr. Muhammad Arshad Ullah acquired Ph.D. Agronomy degree from University of Kassel, Germany, in 2010. Joined PARC on 31.05.2004 as Senior Scientific Officer Range Land Research Institute and promoted to Principal Scientific Officer on 30. 3. 2012 and currently working as National Coordinator (Range Management and Forestry), NRD, PARC. As National Coordinator, (Range Management and Forestry) organized and run the RM&F department to perform secretarial duties in accordance with Rules of business. Planned, implemented, and coordinated the projects, evaluated the research projects of RM&F disciplines. As Director of Scientific Communication and Publication at NARC updated, maintained and edited the contents of all items of PARC website. Supervised and directed the publishing of Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Research, created and updated of the Digital Archive of PARC Research and Scholarly Work.

During Service in NARC worked in different projects as

  • Adaptation, Indigenization & Evaluation of Household Levels Solar Desalination and Water from Air Technologies(Team Member,  23-10-2013 to30-09 -2015)
  • Soil salinity monitoring under various resource conservation technologies adopted in different agro-ecologies (Co-PI, 2007-2010)
  • Nuclear Techniques Assisted Management of salt- affected Lands and Brackish water in Pakistan (Team Member, 2007-2008)
  • Assessment of productive potential and Utilization of Rangelands and sown Pastures in Pothowar Plateau (PI; 2004-2007)

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