Title : Morpho- Physiological disorders of in vitro grown plants and their acclimatization
The benefit of any in vitro propagation only fully realized if there is successful transfer of plantlets from tissue-culture vessels to ex vitro conditions. A substantial number of micropropagated plants do not survive on transfer from in vitro conditions to greenhouse or field environment as plantlets developed within the culture vessels under low level of light, aseptic conditions contribute a culture-induced phenotype that cannot survive the environmental conditions when directly placed in a greenhouse or field. Plantlets or shoots that have grown in vitro have been continuously exposed to a unique microenvironment that has been selected to provide minimal stress and optimum conditions for plant multiplication. The culture conditions that promote rapid growth and multiplication of shoots often results in the formation of structurally and physiologically abnormal plants. Many a times they are characterized by poor photosynthetic efficiency, malfunctioning of stomata and a marked decrease in epicuticular wax. Understanding these abnormalities is a prerequisite to develop efficient transplantation protocols. The major abnormalities in in vitro culture of plants and the current and developing methods for acclimatization of in vitro cultured plantlets will be discussed.