2023 Speakers

Vashchenko Viktor Fedorovich

Vashchenko Viktor Fedorovich, Speaker at Plant Biology 2022
Rlets State University, Russian Federation
Title : Paradigm of adaptation and agro-climatic potential, growth and development of an intact plant by secondary metabolism


Growth and development are controlled by the initial cell of the apex by a complex hierarchy, a stepped network of integral signals from the balance of hormones of stimulants and inhibitors, their level in ontogenesis, which control the appearance of initial cells of secondary meristems, organogenesis, morphogenesis. The secondary metabolism of the year creates a phenotype, ranging from environmental signal perception, transport and repression, degradation, the inclusion of genes to create molecules and their secondary metabolism. They constitute the agro-climatic potential, the process of adaptation.
Key words: apex, balance. hormone, metabolism, heredity, adaptability, regulation, phenotype
Plant hormones control plant growth and development from embryogenesis without IAA glycosides without turning on gene expression from storage substances to reproductive development. The initial cell of the apex is able to choose, through hormones, the path and degree of response in response to the conditions for the implementation of organogenesis by growth and development from the initial cells of the primary and secondary meristem, including turning on genes in the complex, stepwise metabolism of the secondary meristem, which is the basis of adaptation as a condition for survival and replacement plant productivity. The development of all terrestrial tissues is controlled by the apical meristem, which balances cell proliferation and differentiation to maximize survival. Meristem activity is adapted to prevailing conditions through a poorly understood integration of developmental signals with environmental and nutritional information, a key regulator of meristem maintenance. At high temperature, in young rice panicles, the content of IAA decreased and the content increased. The environment develops and affects the plant phenotype. Due to the drought, the level of IAA decreased to 72%. Hormones function in response to the environment. In plants, the development of all aboveground tissues is controlled by the shoot apicalmeristem, which balances cell proliferation and differentiation to ensure lifelong growth. To maximize fitness and survival, meristem activity adjusts to prevailing conditions through the integration of developmental cues with environmental and nutritional information. For example, sugar signals affect function by altering the levels of a key regulator for proper coordination of meristem activity. This is a universal mechanism for the regulation of physiological processes and ensures the adaptation of the body to environmental conditions. Plant growth proceeds only in the presence of a whole range of light conditions,suitable temperature and soil moisture, the presence of organic and mineral nutrients, etc.growth hormones, like enzymes, are specialized in increasing the plasticity of the cell membrane. One group of cells in this case becomes the "senders" of the signal, while the other receives it. Hormones adapt plants to environmental conditions. The synthesis of tryptophan and auxin did not change in the mutants; there are several such pathways. IAA can bind to sugars, amino acids, forming inactive forms. Growth regulation, metabolism in organogenesis and morphogenesis and phenotype with the same genes, they form adaptation to the conditions of the year and agricultural technology, and agricultural technology is biologically substantiated. Observations show that temperature modulates endogenous IAA levels. Mutants in aspects of auxin signaling result only in a change in sensitivity to seed germination. ABA prepares for the environment by inhibiting growth, ethylene by reversing the order of dominance of stems, conifers stops growth forever, so it is not able to restore the status of auxin. Receptor proteins play a role in the adaptive response to light as a result of the interplay of signaling and metabolism. The combined action of two phytohormones, auxin and cytokinin, with ROS signals and their reactions to environmental changes allow plants to regulate their development and growth. Auxin in the apex is transported to the apex from the coleoptile from the shoot apical meristem. It is in the apical meristem that the synthesis of auxins is concentrated. IAA can be irreversibly destroyed specifically, non-specifically. Specific non-specific pathways of transport and synthesis of IAA in the plant show regulatory and non-deterministic as a result of the regulation of secondary metabolism on adaptive processes of growth and development. Hormone in metabolism with regulators, receptors and genes response to the environment. Apex perceives the induction of agroclimatic potential and constitutes the adaptive potential of the species. From it follows the placement of crops and agricultural technology. Agrobiological diagnostics looks at the structure of yields on the area in the dynamics of the growing season and puts the necessary intensification or potential above the species. The balance of all regulators coordinates various cellular processes, as it is a consequence of signal perception. The work of the transgene is changed by secondary metabolism. As a result, all the properties of the plant change. It is more complex than adding the building blocks of gene expression! Breeding still seems to be art yet! Adaptive varieties combine tall stature and productivity and do not lie with the ethephon and make its productivity higher than the varietal one! Biosynthesis, degradation, and conjugation are
processes that regulate auxin homeostasis in plants. Derivation from the protein tryptophan points to pathways of secondary regulation and metabolism as the main complexity of plants and a hierarchy of complex subordination. The IAA conjugate stored in seeds at maturity is ready for transformation in response to changing conditions. The plant has the peculiarity to exist self-sufficiently in the medium immobile, changing the activity of
the apical meristems of the apexes or initiating the initial cell in the secondary meristem. In rapeseed, one branch stops in the “umbrella” phenotype, in nettles, lateral shoots grow. In cereals, when favorable weather conditions are restored, the elements of seed yield compensate each other mainly due to productive stems and the number of grains per plant at optimal sowing density, if there has not been a catastrophic increase in the number of stems, the grain may be frail. More stable seed mass. It is not clear how the activation of the gene is regulated. Growth adaptation by a hormone to drought and an exogenous ethylene producer reveals an identical phenotype of rapeseed (panicle) and barley (absence of the last interlode). A complex mechanism of secondary metabolism is involved. It fully evaluates the possibilities of growth and development and, in balance with other
hormones, to slow down or turn on all the apical meristems and secondary initial cells after precipitation in plants with an indeterminate apex and another one in cereals, to differentiate from physiological tissues after the initial cell. Ethylene stops apical growth, dominance status, as soon as weather conditions appear, it moves to another stem and growth resumes. Management occurs as a process of adaptation in time and conditions. The process of adaptation has created a self-sufficient and self-developing mechanism. This is quite economical in terms of the number of secondary molecular reactions. In grain winter crops, spring in the temperate zone with a slow rise in temperature and sufficient humidity alternating from a neutral status of hormone balance, as everyone knows, ensures the development of the main element of productivity - productive stems and you can be sure of a fruitful year. The hormone gives a sensitive connection with the weather - climatic conditions. It shapes growth and development. Molecular reactions occur with the participation of other molecules, stepwise, interconnected and interdependent, with transfer, which is typical for interaction with DNA activity and for secondary metabolism. The concentration of ROS affects the activity of enzymes that absorb ROS, lipid peroxidation, and the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and abiotic stress. Transcription factor proteins are co- regulators of cytokinin responses to the environment and are involved in the regulation of other transcriptional responses. The Central Committee affects growth depending on the combination in the balance sheet and the environment, this is a fine-tuning. At the dose and phase of exogenous ethylene on barley, when in the phase of 2 nodes and an ethephon of 2 l/ha, up to 10 stems were formed, which were not provided with seeds. CK concentrations naturally decrease in response to adverse conditions as it stimulates cell growth. Most of the conflicting data was obtained as a result of physiological studies, genetic studies, at the level of an intact plant, a different picture is revealed. Thus, ethylene is considered to thicken the stem, while at the level of crops it is visually visible that this is a stop of the stem growth and lodging does not occur due to the absence of the longest last interlode and erectoid ear, since ear nastia also does not occur. The first ear is limited in the growth of grain content, and growth occurs in the second productive ear, and if the weather conditions are sufficient, there can be hundreds of ears, they are limited by the optimal density of plants on the area. The rest of the hormones occupy the corresponding activity in the direction of growth from the balance of auxin/ethylene. Interactions between phytohormones reconfigure plant growth and development. The hormone cannot prevent stress because it is a reaction to the environment. This paradigm plays a central role in regulating plant development. Water deficiency is cured by a wide range of morphological and biochemical changes. CK is related to ABA by feedback, since one is a growth promoter and the other is an inhibitor. The auxin/kinetin ratio decides whether the root or stem grows. Plants maintain hormone levels at different developmental stages in a complex and balanced way through biosynthetic and metabolic rates, cellular and subcellular localization, signal sensing and signal transduction pathways transport and responses, complex interactions among all pathways involved. In crop programs, sophisticated adaptive breeding programs can form the basis of many aspects of
crop improveme



Vashchenko Viktor Fedorovich, studied breeding at the Voronezh Agrarian University, defended his master's degree at the Moscow Institute of Agriculture and was a doctoral student at Yelets State University. He worked there as an assistant professor. Published more than 80 scientific articles in journals, 2 monographs in Europe and the Russian Federation.

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