2019 Speakers

Tian Tang

Speaker at Plant Biology and Biotechnology 2019 - Tian Tang
Sun Yat-sen University, China
Title : Evolutionary epigenomics of mangroves reveals the homeostatic role of gene body methylation in stress adaptation

Abstract:

DNA methylation plays an important role in plant stress responses whereas little is known about its role in long-term stress adaptation. In this study, we used mangroves well-adapted to tropical intertidal environments as a model system to understand the role of gene body methylation, i.e., CG methylation in coding regions, in plant stress adaptation. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we compared patterns of gene body methylation between pairs of mangrove and non-mangrove species using rice as outgroup. We found massive gains of gene body methylation specific to mangrove lineages. The estimated gain-to-loss ratio of gene body methylation in mangroves is magnitudes higher than that in non-mangroves. We estimated that more than a thousand genes exhibited convergent body methylation in mangrove genomes (convBMM) but only tens of genes in the non-mangroves (convBMN). In comparison with non-convergent gbM genes, covBMM but not convBMN genes showed reduced gene expression variation in response to salt and UV-B stresses. We found little overlap between convBMM genes and loci with signatures of convergent DNA sequence evolution. Our results suggest that positive selection acts on natural gbM variation to increase gene expression stability. This may allow rapid accumulation of genetic variation and thus accelerate long-term adaptation to environmental stresses.

Take Away Notes:
• This study indicates that epigenetics independent of genetics plays a significant role in adaptive evolution.
• Our results suggest that gene expression homeostasis is crucial for plant long-term adaptation to environmental stresses.
• Genes with mangrove-specific convergent gene body methylation would provide a valuable resource for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying plant adaptation in general.

Biography:

Dr Tang received her PhD from Sun Yat-sen University in 2004 and has been working there ever since then. She was promoted to Professor in 2013. Previously, she was a visiting scholar at the University of Chicago where she studied the functional evolution of microRNAs. She is interested in small RNA evolution and function. Her current research themes include: microRNA evolution and sex antagonism, siRNAs in epigenetic inheritance and stress adaptation, the genetic conflict between transposable elements and host small RNAs, an evolution of small RNA pathways.

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