Phytochemistry is the study of plant compounds, particularly secondary metabolites, which are created as a self-defence mechanism against insects, pathogens, pests, diseases, herbivores, UV radiation, and environmental threats. The structural compositions of these metabolites, the biosynthetic processes, functions, mechanisms of action in living systems, and their medical, industrial, and commercial applications are all considered in phytochemistry. The discovery of new plant natural products with economic value has been aided by the researchers of phytochemicals in numerous industries such as traditional and complementary medicine, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplement industries.
Pharmacognosy is defined as the systematic study of the morphological, chemical, and biological qualities of crude pharmaceuticals of natural origin, as well as their history, cultivation, collection, extraction, isolation, bio assaying, quality control, and manufacture. Pharmacognosy is the science of obtaining natural medications from organisms such as plants, microorganisms, and animals. Many significant medications, such as morphine, atropine, galantamine, and others, have come from natural sources and are still used as model molecules in drug development.