Plant genetics is the study of heredity in plants, specifically the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited traits. Plant genetics differs from animal genetics in several ways: somatic mutations can contribute to the germ line more easily since flowers emerge at the end of somatic cell-based branches; polyploidy is more common; and plants also have chloroplast DNA.
Genome size, gene content, the extent of repetitive sequences, and polyploidy/duplication events are the best ways to define plant genomes. It strives to sequence, characterise, and investigate a full plant genome's genetic compositions, structures, organisations, functions, and interactions/networks. Plants have mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes as well, but their nuclear genome is the largest and most complicated. Plant Genomics is Critical for Food Security, Human Health, and Environmental Sustainability