Plants are complex organisms and are prone to abiotic stress. The detrimental impact of non-living forces on living organisms in a specific environment is known as abiotic stress. Drought, salinity, low or high temperatures, and other environmental extremes are the leading causes of poor plant development and lower crop yields around the world. Because of climate change and the destruction of the environment caused by human activity, abiotic stress has become a major threat to food security. Abiotic stress causes plants to undergo a variety of molecular, cellular, and physiological changes in order to respond and adapt to the situation. A better understanding of how plants respond to abiotic stress may help breeders improve stress tolerance in both traditional and modern breeding applications.