Plants have a dense inhabitation of a range of microorganisms, both belowground and aboveground, that coexist. The bacteria that colonise plants are divided into epiphytes, which live on the surface, endophytes, which live inside the plant tissues, phyllospheric, which lives on leaf surfaces, and rhizospheric, which lives near the roots in the soil. The rhizosphere of a plant is an essential niche that is home to a large number of microorganisms. Plant growth promotion, disease suppression, toxic chemical elimination, and nutrient assimilation are amongst features they have.
The study of plant-animal interactions in the context of nutrient flow in food chains and food webs, exchange of important gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide between plants and animals, and mutual survival strategies between plant and animal species through pollination and seed dispersal are all part of ecology.